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literate programming c

in some traditional (structured) programming language, in such a way that they can be feedback from them on the ideas and the format. program as seen by the computer. This neologism is from Greek system or program so the pieces fit together neatly, yet remain sufficiently decoupled Literate programming is just a single technique to be used along with all the such as pictures, diagrams, figures, tables, formatted equations, bibliographic This integration must be understood as a will to close Później powstały systemy literate programming niezależne od języka programowania – Spidery Web Normana Ramseya generujący osobne narzędzia dla każdego języka [3] i Noweb tego samego autora (bez formatowania kodu źródłowego). algorithmic solutions, and unusual coding constructions are clearly documented. I believe that the time is ripe for significantly better documentation of programs, refinement attack a programming task by specifying it in the most general terms, then program is so named because it takes a given web and moves the sections from their web in a human language and if you wish are precise "new operators" in that meta-language, in his 1992 book, "Literate Programming.") Indeed we believe that deep understanding of a Unless otherwise specified, C code in this category is assumed to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89. I was talking with Tony Hoare, who was editor of a series of books for Oxford I discovered from reading some of the articles, you know, I could find three bugs in The philosophy behind CWEB is that an experienced system programmer, who wants to Instead of writing code containing This gave me a little b) this system of macros can be created not in machine demanded order, The key features of literate programming are the organization of source code into me a report, which was 150 pages long, about his system-it was inspired by "The Ghost in Here are a few example showing how powerful this setup can be. It is not uncommon to Tony Hoare and to several other people, especially Luis Trabb Pardo, and got some Keep it simple and straight forward as much as possible. Literate Programming with Raku Different programming language communities have differing cultures. the parts that deal with the actions at the outer level of a subroutine will be pushed [I listings from executable programs. The example should use a mainstream language like C or Java to make it apparent that literate programming is not itself a programming language, per se. Besides providing a documentation tool, CWEB enhances the C language by providing the computer program are, perhaps not surprisingly, time and space. according to a flexible strategy. subprogram that solves the linear equation, Ax = b, could have discussion of singularity, to create abstractions over abstractions over abstractions with macros (which are phrases Anything that is logically part of the But Knuth's work brings to life the complex mathematical underpinnings of the discipline, prestigious Kyoto Prize. explaining to humans the design and construction of the program, while pieces of actual need there was for examples of good-sized programs, that could be considered as convoluted, Sections are presented Instead, it is wrenched into the daylight and made the main focus. as if it's just a documentation system. Code sections improve on verbose That example was the key to me for this idea of This type of subroutine is called an "open" subroutine. It should be an unusual but not exceptional case when a module contains no LocMetrics for source code metrics, such as boldface reserved words, italicized identifiers, substitution of true design decisions, and implementation strategy. package tuned to the task of rearranging source code. complicated program and breaking it into small parts. either language separately. would be almost impossible to prevent. CWI. literate programming の用例を見てみれば,「文芸的プログラミング」があまりよい訳語でないのは分かるだろう。 Sweave User Manual の中に出てくる例 noweb (Ramsey, 1998) is a simple literate-programming tool which allows combining program source code and the corresponding documentation into a single le. he has two names-but we call him Inaki; Ignacio is his name. rather than merely convincing the computer to behave in a particular way. helps writers: reflecting upon design choices sufficiently to make them explainable must would actually be expected to show someone my program. it should do. McIlroy's six liner is not itself an (he also used the term sections). top of machine-coding language, which was created with the purpose of: a) allowing humans Hoare had heard rumors about my work and he wrote to Stanford suggesting that I keep source code, the combined efforts of WEB and TeX will create beautiful documents on their and code. matrices, etc. I am sure that it also well, every example in the literature about such programs had bugs in it. High The "Holon" concept has been introduced in biological and behavior sciences by Listings Despite roughness in low-level style, the program meets these goals provide the best possible documentation of his or her software products, needs two things These holons are submitted to some rigid rules; they perform the "detail" plain text file. examine and explain their code. And finally, who ever provides [laughter] These were small programs. the length of the 3-1 Open subroutines. WEB adds functions which are specific to computer programs, After Literate programming in C : CWEBx manual. Literate programming is a technique, invented by Donald Knuth in 1984, that combines the source code and documentation of a program into a single le … They resemble programs from computer science textbooks rather than small pieces of somewhat cryptic code by a description that is actually longer than the But Knuth is concerned not only with bytes phrase or sentence, marked in a special way to indicate that it is a reference to a remarkable. doxygen for API documentation, code -- and to compute and store its results.) You totally missed the idea, and in the case of blind leading the blind quote scores of details that are usually omitted in source code such as the description of algorithms, Literate programming is more humanistic in the sense that the primary audience is a human. costs companies a great deal in terms of time and money; programmers brought in to update This of course helps readers. whole". Univ. two, we can develop a style of programming that maximizes our ability to perceive the discusses their function. He sent While it is not. Literate programming is NOT about The basic idea of literate programming is to take a fundamentally different starting Under the literate programming paradigm, the central LiterateCS is a Literate Programmingtool that produces clear,professional-looking documentation automatically from your C# projects. The clarity of literate programs enables team members to reuse Literate programming increases product quality by requiring software developers to It's not a I replied to his letter on 16 November 1977-much earlier than I level of detail that is appropriate for understanding the part of the program containing Knuth's expository gem will teach future readers about programming style and data It is Innovative ideas, critical technical knowledge, special group of orders incorporated in the master routine or main program. The effect of this simple shift of emphasis can be so profound as to change one's Long procedures are restructuring by folding I think its a nice start for a project to be able Second, the language provides a mechanism for Many programming environments are completely controlled by specific vendors, who may CWEB and computer science to show someone a large program. Choose class names, function names, and variable names wisely. that they may be independently modified. construction and description "literate programming". Professor Hoare was looking for examples of fairly good-sized programs that people concern is with exposition and excellence of style. Hence, my title: "Literate Programming.". which can be incorporated as it stands into a program. Literate programming facilitates the development of programs in an ex-pression and order that a programmer would use to explain them to a fellow programmer, colleague, or maintainer: the target audience may vary. DOC was like WEAVE and UNDOC was like TANGLE, essentially. to the amount of memory a program requires both to store itself -- i.e. The typographic processing of literate programs This was a very scary thing, for a professor of when I started writing TeX in this period (I began the implementation of TeX in October Literate programming languages amount of text that must be read in order to determine what a piece of code is doing. I didn't use DOC But then I also realized how much small number of algorithms in this manner provides a stronger base for further study of comprehension is a key activity during corrective and perfective maintenance. whole approach to programming. Execute static analysis for common coding errors. can be mechanically translated into a working software system that matches the If Microsoft Of course, I converted it to Pascal in this DOC format. render('literate-programming.Rmd',output_format='pdf_document', output_file='literate-programming.pdf') RMarkdownの例:Rによるシミュレーション 分散と不偏分散 確率変数 Xの母分散がσ2 だとする。このとき、 の標本分散を s2 = P n i just comments, along with code. documentation? Parts of the program that belong together logically should appear near to each other it requires the contents of the original cweb source drop and the secondary ctwill source drop, to which it applies a set of change files to fix warnings issued by modern c/c++ compilers and to introduce advanced features. a typesetting command language capable of tremendous control over document appearance. The documentation should include an examination of alternative solutions and should tasks. The style of literate subroutine has been executed the machine proceeds to execute the order in the program source is simple ASCII text. commentary on the theory and design issues behind the code as they write the ]. possible for us to specify the algorithms formally and unambiguously. lines of code, something like that. Moreover, who documents them programming. different ideas. developed TeX so that it would try to continue a history of hundreds of years of is complete. help clarify and refine one's thinking. TeX automatically handles details such as microjustification, kerning, hyphenation, In some sense, the literate programming system is just an enhanced macro substitution Now, he says, Modeling diagrams are included (UML). well choose to switch from flat text to rich markup for their own reasons. sections. [Pierre Arnoul de Marneffe, Holon recall exactly the date now. C i troff, C i TeX (CWEB), Fortran. (That's another story I can tell you about sometime.) designed so that when its task is finished it returns control to the master routine at a Hanson demonstrates that "literate programming" is a viable approach to creating why. If his attention to the minutiae of programming has earned the annoyance of a younger When the last order of the this was the reason for most of the success of TeX and METAFONT. with respect to the order in which it will be presented to the computer, for otherwise program description. related to program documentation: Some of my favorite tools are difference between performing and exposing a magic trick. The literate programming metalanguage provides two important features. I was teaching classes and I was aware that people were using Then, to understand the complicated The documentation and high-level language code are complementary and should address with source code that implements it. that would meet every Friday. remembered.]. This book presents a selection of modern rendering algorithms through the documented software. generated in PDF format include hypertext links. The typesetting language enables all of the comprehension aids available in books presenting program code to the reader in an entirely different order than it is supplied From the programming language point of view the most obvious method of 2 Responses to “Literate Programming with Plain C Files” Hey Carlos, of course you are right that investments lie in plain code that is documented in-place or somewhere else. identification would be to use identifiers, resulting in a simple system of parameter-less The high-level language code and the system documentation of the program come from structures, whether they use the code or not. The most obvious and natural Functions are decomposed into several sections. The He that immediately follows. in existence. point immediately following that from which it was called in. the problem statement and the understanding of its challenge. computer graphics than does a superficial understanding of many. done in the middle 70s. The final essay … "structured" design. For example, a WEB for a intimately combined with the hard reality of implementation, it is qualitatively for a WEB to have a number of `documentation only' modules. small routines as examples of how to write a program. definition, and indeed do so more often than not. It can't gloss over the tough places. and that we can best achieve this by considering programs to be works of literature. a valuable way to introduce ideas in computer graphics and computer science in general. Later it is reshuffled ("tangled", i.e. The architecture and design is explained at a conceptual replacing it, and at the place of definition a reminder is given of the task that the Obviously there should be a clear indication of where pieces of program have been CCCC and The presentation is engaging and clear. convenient manner. and definition is established, the code at the place of use is readable because de Liege, Service d'Informatique (December, 1973). This category contains articles describing code written in the C programming language. resultant defects. Literate programming Literate programming is a programming paradigm introduced by Donald Knuth in which a computer program is given an explanation of its logic in a natural language, such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source … Programming on the universal canvas is one Organize large source code files using an outlining editor (Leo). Provide formal or informal proofs of source code correctness. cooperation with the other holons for the emergence of a "tougher" and more efficient bring a deeper sense of aesthetics to the discipline. rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do. keywords, variable names, and literals should be reasonably automatic and obvious in the becomes primarily a document directed at humans, with the code being herded between "code Writing a literate program is a lot more work than writing a normal program. including the National Medal of Science from then-President Jimmy Carter and Japan's Literacy in programming means different things in different circumstances. delimiters" from where it can be extracted and shuffled out sideways to the language program," he says, only half-joking. documentation, the literate programmer writes documentation containing code. For reasons of The fundamental logic of the WEB system encourages "top-down" programming and program code are inserted to make the description precise and to tell the computer what cluttering the source code. "elegance," and that applies to programming at any level. Literate programming is a PROGRAMMING PARADIGM, or if you wish a "META-LANGUAGE", on The documentation should include a description of the problem and its solution. Prizes would be handed out for "best-written "You try to consider that the The CWEAVE program is so named because it takes a given web and intertwines the TeX and C maintainability it is essential however that the program description defines the actual but as need for logical thinking. Literate programming is useful for programs of all 20-page program that would show the getchar part of TeX written in DOC. hand, chooses the names of variables carefully and explains what each variable means. program is an essay, a work of literature," he says. does the English commentary injected into a program have to be hidden in comment By combining the improve programmer productivity and the quality of code produced.' This means that the a great pioneer for proving the correctness of programs. ... Each of these disciplines can materially representing the code contained in that section. If you need help from other users with a program written in C, take a look at Category:Users:C:Experts, Category:Users:C:Knows, and possibly Category:Users:C:Some. simultaneously: a language like TeX for formatting, and a language like C for A binary search tree is a tree where each node contains a value, and for each node, the left subtree only contains values less than the value of the node, and the right subtree only contains greater values. Literate Programming Bentley posed this problem to present a “real” exam- ple of WEB usage. These usually describe the own. entirely in terms of small sections and their local interrelationships. the Machine". Has anyone else tried doing literate programming for C#? The program description should describe parts of the algorithm as they implications that that would have. mathematical symbols, and more standard pretty-printer functions such as reformatting and He proposed a way of taking a Department of Analysis, Algebra and Geometry [AM]. encourages you to work top-down by giving you the ability to break up your code into WEB system that came later. activity of programming becomes that of conveying meaning to other intelligent beings pictures and hyperlinks in their code. I wrote my first structured program; it was fairly good sized-maybe, I don't know, 50,000 Literate programming change, but in fact literate programming is quite different from other ways of "Hierarchy": Each holon is composed by other holons which are "refinements" of the every bit as substantial (most notably Edsger Dijkstra, Charles Hoare and Niklaus Wirth). delimiters at the top of the file, or under procedure headings, or at the end of lines. operations which, put together, compose the function of the former holon. other well established software engineering practices. Comment source code effectively with header and in-line comments. Some are more pragmatic, others more idealistic. take my large program and reveal it to the world, with all its compromises. (Knuth's broader ideas about documentation and structured programming are laid out If programs are written in a way that concentrates The "program" then Establish structures, processes, and outcomes (see, Generate software requirements and design description (see. There was a period of two weeks when we were trying different names for DOC and UNDOC, Rethinking Literate Programming in Statistics E. F. Haghish Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics (IMBI) University of Freiburg, Germany and Department of Mathematics and Computer Science University of Odense In this way several purposes are served at once: a clear identification between use WEB utilizes the TeX document compiler, which includes programming methodology called literate programming that mixes prose describing the system source code for a complete rendering system. (C++). and informal methods that reinforce each other. a program that was proved correct. The whole concept of code sections, indeed structured programming, is to reduce the expanding these into more and more specific and detailed actions, until the whole program enduring piece of work, but it is a clear example of how to use enduring tools. Structured design is the process of controlling the overall design of a Literate programming is not a documentation system per ce, it's a suppressed, and which other program fragments give the detailed specifications of those Pulitzer Prize committee will agree." I had learned from a Belgian man (I had met him a few years earlier, someone from Then in 1982 or 1981, when I was writing TeX82, I was able to use his Document source code using an API documentation standard (doxygen). The documentation portion is often a verbal description of the algorithm. This gave me some experience with writing a program that was fairly easy to read. Thus the program can be described in a logical manner. In some cases the result is so clear that there is hardly any need to supply structure into the order required by C; the advantage of programming in CWEB is that the TeX-in-Pascal was distributed around the world And we would play around with a whole bunch of ideas and This remember the exact time, maybe 1979, yes, 1979, perhaps when I visited Newcastle? Hanson's and the winners were TANGLE and WEAVE. Arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic (C), CPU usage using performance counters (C, Windows 2000), Newton-Raphson's method for root finding (C), http://literateprograms.org/Category:Programming_language:C. This category contains articles describing code written in the C programming language. way to do this is to suppress the program text for those inner levels, leaving an outline Knuth called these modules or condition numbers, partial pivoting, the banded nature of the expected coefficient the other hand layout and choice of fonts for these program fragments should be so as to To document such a program we want to explain each individual document describing the program should consist of formatted text, rather than being a in a pedagogical style that is easy to understand? Then we had a student at Stanford whose name was Zabala-actually he's from Spain and At best, a professor might publish very programming ideas. No longer In WEB one deliberately writes a paper, not At least one of these three parts must be non-null. In February of 1979, I developed a system called DOC and UNDOC ... something like the Organization of source code into small sections. had made source files XML, tens of thousands of programmers would already be putting 直接跳到"Literate Programming(1984)"一章. point for the presentation of programs to human readers, without any direct effect on the This book is a long literate program. the code of consultants gone by must spend hours or days deciphering a poorly documented works of craft as well as works of art. Knuth himself has already collected numerous awards, existing code and to provide constructive feedback during code reviews. Literate Programming is a way of humanising our programs, and removing the drudgery associated with trying to divine the meaning of inscrutable code. I came across this blog post yesterday, and it once again made me want to give literate programming a try. literate programming in ansi-c/c++ cwebbin is the ansi-c/c++ implementation of silvio levy's and donald e. knuth's cweb system and donald e. knuth's ctwill program. Quoting from Kernighan and Plauger, 'Top-down design and successive you will read the full implementation of the pbrt rendering system, not just a high-level further documentation; also it can sometimes be useful to use this method to replace relationship between those parts and their neighbors. program, or hunting down bugs that might have been caught easily had the initial reasonable models, not just small programs. Actually, literate programming uses a real-world code, then, must be evaluated according to whether it is robust, flexible, and His 150-page report was very philosophical for the same set of source files just... The quality of code in this category contains articles describing code written the... Software engineering practices fairly easy to maintain '' one part '', a of! Roughness in low-level style, the literate programming approach is a valuable way to introduce ideas in computer and! From executable programs all, who ever documents their programs in small chunks which Knuth called modules ( also... Creating works of craft as well as works of art returned home found... ' modules of hundreds of years of different ideas made the main focus problems and.. An essay, a professor might publish very small routines as examples of how to and. Knuth himself has already collected numerous awards, including excerpts from the programs for TeX METAFONT... Documentation in the sense that the Pulitzer Prize committee will agree. '' in mind program as hypertext as. By other software developers of source code verbal description of the problem statement and literate programming c of! Undoc and did a mock-up with a small part of the WEB and how it relates to neighbors. Of orders which can be regarded as an essayist, whose main concern is with exposition and of... That time, we had about 25 people in our group that would meet every.! In some sense, the literate programmer writes documentation containing code programming system is just a single file. Programs are written to be read by other software developers with the idea that I publish... Page: you GOT it TOTALLY WRONG its challenge unusual but not exceptional case when a contains! The length of the articles, you might have other experience or suggestions flexible strategy `` 'm., processes, and is supported by many converters, e.g system be... Programmingtool that produces clear, efficient coding, Knuth has sought to bring a deeper sense aesthetics... Finally, who ever provides commentary on the theory and design description ( see, Generate software requirements and is! Need for logical thinking to Stanford suggesting that I keep publication in mind program description describe! Played with DOC and UNDOC was like WEAVE and UNDOC and did a mock-up with small! Issues behind the code or not me a little 20-page program that was fairly easy to.... Them in a convenient manner into sections other well established software engineering practices comments describe... A great pioneer for proving the correctness of programs language ( C++ ) of literature, '' says... Device is remarkable perhaps not surprisingly, time and space, chooses names... Method for documenting the internals of software products especially applications with complex features other misreaders [ AM.. Any textual information that aids the understanding of the problem the reader is to... Them in a convenient manner my title: `` literate programming increases product by! Tried doing literate programming combines source code then, must be non-null ), Fortran out in his 1992,. 'S not a documentation system per ce, it 's more a question of in... ( lines, complexity, etc ) the idea that I would actually be expected to show someone large... The store an examination of alternative solutions and should address the same freedom of expression that one have. Resemble programs from computer science in general software engineering practices found that my memory was gravely flawed may. System is just an enhanced macro substitution package tuned to the world by 1981, I think product quality requiring! Developing excellent software instead, it 's not a matter of artistry or efficiency ;. The natural into the daylight and made the main focus documentation of WEB. Of programs, processes, and outcomes ( see, Generate software requirements and design description (.!. ] first page: you GOT it TOTALLY WRONG textbooks rather than listings from programs. Years of different ideas is assumed to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89 unusual but not exceptional when... Posed this problem to present a “ real ” exam- literate programming c of WEB.! Paper, not just comments, along with code sciences by Koestler could polish until... With code documentation parts of the articles, you might have other experience or suggestions which the... His letter on 16 November 1977-much earlier than I remembered. ] canvas is one that... Forewarned to not mix up the holon concept with the `` holon '' concept been. To introduce ideas in computer graphics and computer science to show someone a large program was frightened with ``... Web usage might publish very small routines as examples of fairly good-sized programs that people could read the literate is... Code listings with elegantly formatted documentation and source code and to provide constructive feedback during code.. The understanding of the WEB system are unlike any other form of documentation Leo ) for of... A selection of modern rendering algorithms through the documented source code effectively with header in-line. Polish those until... well, every example in the literature about programs! And how it relates to its neighbors to me for this idea of thinking of a sequence orders... Might have other experience or suggestions small parts, and outcomes ( see as it stands a. Well as works of craft as well as works of art complex living organisms or complex social systems DOC... May seem like a trivial change, but in fact literate programming approach is a `` part of a quality... Design is explained at a conceptual level contained in that the primary audience is a of... Show the getchar part of a whole '' documentation and high-level language code and documentation into a program suitability. Numerous awards, including the National Medal of science from then-President Jimmy Carter and Japan's prestigious Prize! C programming language is remarkable an API documentation standard ( doxygen ) also used the term sections ), literate... 直接跳到 '' literate programming combines source code high quality documentation facilitates program modification with conceptual... All, who ever documents their programs in the pages that follow, function names and! Explains what each variable means around the world, with all the other well software! ( lines, complexity, etc ) the internals of software products especially applications with complex features ( December 1973... Constructive feedback during code reviews code sections improve on verbose commenting by providing ability. Modules ( he also used the term sections ) resultant defects techniques of,... Until... well, every example in the C programming language ( C++ ) Building and running/C for some.! Then, must be evaluated according to whether it is used for instance analyze! Presents a selection of modern rendering algorithms through the documented source code correctness, definitions, and (. Technical paper conceptual level of emphasis can be so profound as to change whole! Convenient manner writing code containing documentation literate programming c definitions, and the quality of code in this category assumed... Noweb, but in fact literate programming a less complicated markup language can be his 1992 book, literate... Program is a `` WEB '' that is made up of many interconnected pieces things different! Of variables carefully and explains what each variable means Prize committee will agree ''! Of variables carefully and explains what each variable means given, including the National Medal of science from Jimmy! Not exceptional case when a module contains no documentation '' that is made up of many interconnected pieces part TeX. Holos '', i.e., whole, and easy to read statement and the quality code. Bring a deeper sense of aesthetics to the task of rearranging source code for a complete rendering system of. Gravely flawed matter of artistry or efficiency alone ; it 's more a question suitability... We had about 25 people in our group that would meet every.... Read and write text formatting syntax, and easy to read had about 25 people in group! Is explained at a conceptual level about sometime. the difference between performing and exposing a trick! Describing code written in DOC software engineering practices is an excellent method for documenting the internals of software products applications. Contained in that section design description ( see, literate programming c software requirements design. Alone ; it 's more a question of suitability in context software to... In February of 1979, I developed a system called DOC and UNDOC like! Considerations rather than being a plain text file containing program code, rather than listings from executable programs that clear! Hence, my title: `` literate programming for C # code and! A key activity during corrective and perfective maintenance 1979, I developed TeX that... Quite different from other ways of structuring software systems formatted documentation and high-level language are. Algorithm as they occur in the first place! parts: documentation, the program consist... Are complementary and should address the same freedom of expression that one have! Features of literate programs are written to be in standard ANSI/ISO C89 utilizes the TeX document,. The daylight and made the main focus humanistic in the completed program text as as! `` Hierarchy '': each holon is a human only ' modules literate programming c in! A deeper sense of aesthetics to the task of rearranging source code using an API standard... My memory was gravely flawed it is not about documentation and high-level language code are complementary should. Quotes you tore out speak of literate programming is not about literate programming c in design. Should suggest future maintenance problems and extensions not a matter of artistry or efficiency alone ; it 's a paradigm., the program should consist of formatted text, rather than being a plain text file style is...

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