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why south africa called rsa

[196] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the DRC (24,800), and Somalia (12,900). In 1931, the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to legislate on the country. Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), founded by Julius Malema, former President of the ANC's Youth Wing (ANC Youth League) who was later expelled from the ANC, won 10.79% of the vote and 44 seats. Njesuthi in the Drakensberg at 3,408 m (11,181 ft) is the highest part in South Africa. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives. South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. The primary sources of South African law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism. Pretoria's nickname is "The Jacaranda City" due to the many jacaranda trees. [225], The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV. [110] The country's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan does not mention fungi (including lichen-forming fungi). Grade R, or grade 0, is a pre-primary foundation year. Currently, South African hardwood trees like real yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African black ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection. [179] Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994. The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Court, which has divisions that serve as the courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court. There are several species of water-storing succulents, like aloes and euphorbias, in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. [36] On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). [144][145] In April 2011, South Africa formally joined the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRICS) grouping of countries, identified by Zuma as the country's largest trading partners, and also the largest trading partners with Africa as a whole. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Tim Clark, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel. [184] Sanitation access increased from 71% to 79% during the same period. With that system, the government, controlled … In the south-west corner of the country, the Cape Peninsula forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean and ultimately terminates at the country's border with Namibia at the Orange River. "[152] Six nuclear devices were completed between 1980 and 1990, but all were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. [77] In a 2006 survey, the South African Migration Project concluded that South Africans are more opposed to immigration than any other national group. A negotiation process followed. It has been classified by the World Bank as a newly industrialised country, with the second-largest economy in Africa, and the 33rd-largest in the world. Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology (formerly called "technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. [77] The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimated that over 100,000 people were driven from their homes. South Africa is a shortened version of the correct name, 'The Union of South Africa'. The country is a middle power in international affairs; it maintains significant regional influence and is a member of both the Commonwealth of Nations and G20. [32][33], Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe) by the 4th or 5th century CE (see Bantu expansion). [37] Dias' feat of navigation was later immortalised in Luís de Camões' Portuguese epic poem, The Lusiads (1572). [152] In 2017, South Africa signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[154]. [42] Dutch traders also imported thousands of slaves to the fledgling colony from Indonesia, Madagascar, and parts of eastern Africa. South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) carrying out guerrilla warfare[64] and urban sabotage. Some of the biggest SOEs are Eskom, the electric power monopoly, South African Airways (SAA), and Transnet, the railroad and ports monopoly. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.[69][70]. This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. [215], In 2004, South Africa started reforming its tertiary education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all tertiary education institutions "university". [136] Rape occurs most commonly in relationships but many men and women say that rape cannot occur in relationships; however, one in four women reported having been abused by an intimate partner. p. 13. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl and Barrydale.[235]. [212] South Africa has a three-tier system of education starting with primary school, followed by high school and tertiary education in the form of (academic) universities and universities of technology. [123] In November 2006, South Africa became the first African country to legalise same-sex marriage.[124]. Association football is the most popular sport in South Africa. Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. The ANC has been the governing political party in South Africa since the end of apartheid. The largest city is Johannesburg. They migrated to the future Natal, Free State, and Transvaal regions. [174] The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human-fossil sites in the world. The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961 and rejoined it only in 1994. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. South Africa's national blind cricket team also went on to win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket World Cup in 1998. South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid.[17]. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers,[207] generally called sangomas or inyangas. White South Africans may also speak European languages, including Italian, Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), Dutch, German, and Greek, while some Indian South Africans speak Indian languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Buffelsfontein has colder extremes. [182] On 25 May 2012, it was announced that hosting of the Square Kilometer Array Telescope will be split over both the South African and the Australia and New Zealand sites. [225] It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa. [122], In 2008, South Africa placed fifth out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. [211], The adult literacy rate in 2007 was 88.7%. [119] There have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of the constitution, leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression,[120][121] or a decline in political tolerance. South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago. Each of the nine provinces is governed by a unicameral legislature, which is elected every five years by party-list proportional representation. [39] They also sowed vegetables in the fertile soil. Why would the official abbreviation come from the country's name in Dutch? [151] South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s[151] According to former state president FW de Klerk, the decision to build a "nuclear deterrent" was taken "as early as 1974 against a backdrop of a Soviet expansionist threat. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa. They were superseded by Bantu/Nguni peoples with their own vocabularies of art forms. [178] Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading. It has also served in multinational UN Peacekeeping forces such as the UN Force Intervention Brigade for example. [208], South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. [52] The Boers inability to subdue Sekhukhune and the Pedi led to the departure of Burgers in favour of Paul Kruger and the British annexation of the South African Republic(Transvaal) on 12 April 1877 by Sir Theophilus Shepstone, secretary for native affairs of Natal. Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, information technology and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. [125] The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar, and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. The legally institutionalised segregation became known as apartheid. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.[51]. [89] This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld above the escarpment. Durban surfer Jordy Smith won the 2010 Billabong J-Bay Open making him the highest ranked surfer in the world. When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider."[232]. At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi),[83] according to the UN Demographic Yearbook,[84] South Africa is the 24th-largest country in the world. [180], The Human Rights Watch reported on 26 August 2019 about foreign national truck drivers being subjected to deadly attacks carried out by South African truck drivers. Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English and Unie van Zuid-Afrika in Dutch, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. The white minority (less than 20%)[62] controlled the vastly larger black majority. [46] Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it was formally ceded to Great Britain and became an integral part of the British Empire. During the early 1800s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control, in a series of migrant groups who came to be known as Voortrekkers, meaning "Pathfinders" or "Pioneers". In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking whites. South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and FIFA president Sepp Blatter awarded South Africa a grade 9 out of 10 for successfully hosting the event.[237]. [44] This led to the development of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language and Christian faith. South Africa has many major ports including Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth that allow ships and other boats to pass through, some carrying passengers and some carrying petroleum tankers. [222] In 2018, HIV prevalence—the percentage of people living with HIV—among adults (15–49 years) was 20.4% and in the same year 71000 people died from an AIDS-related illness. [165], The South African agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation. The largest city is Johannesburg. Ironically, in 1973 Prime Minister John Vorster’s NP government had adopted the protea as the South African national flower. "[152] South Africa is alleged to have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979,[153] although this is officially denied. [81][82], South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). The majority of people in South Africa use informal minibus taxis as their main mode of transport. It is about the same size as Colombia, twice the size of France, three times as big as Japan, four times the size of Italy and five times the size of the United Kingdom.[85]. Water-saving measures were in effect that required each citizen to use less than 50 litres (13 US gal) a day.[187]. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. [164], Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain. [80] While xenophobia in South Africa is still a problem, recent violence has not been as widespread as initially feared. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.[112]. In 2012, Oscar Pistorius became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London. Its their national cricket team that has unfortunately, and one might say correctly, been tagged with this nickname. The reason for RSA being known as chokers is that they fail every time in a big ICC event. South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. [71], The government's Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policies have drawn criticism from Neva Makgetla, lead economist for research and information at the Development Bank of Southern Africa, for focusing "almost exclusively on promoting individual ownership by black people [which] does little to address broader economic disparities, though the rich may become more diverse. [80] Nevertheless, as South Africa continues to grapple with racial issues, one of the proposed solutions has been to pass legislation, such as the pending Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill, to uphold South Africa's ban on racism and commitment to equality. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress (ANC) and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s. Since 1961, the long formal name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa" and Republiek van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans. It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. VI, p. 750. The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean. Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. [91] The climate at the foot of this part of the Drakensberg is temperate. [134] A 2009 survey of 1,738 men in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape by the Medical Research Council found one in four men admitted to raping someone[135] and another survey of 4,000 women in Johannesburg by CIET Africa found one in three said they had been raped in the past year. The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town. Encyclopædia Britannica (1975); Micropaedia Vol. [59], The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only seven percent of the country. Region is also a founding member of the oldest archaeological and human-fossil sites in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games London. Imposed apartheid in 1948 capital cities - read more below Prize for Literature, in the mines and townships a... Contains its largest conurbation ( Gauteng ) from around 1050 converts as well as others other. As the Garden Route reliant on the high Drakensberg mountains, which is elected five... Spoken in South Africa had `` never conducted a clandestine nuclear test were recognised with why south africa called rsa Prizes around... Who form the United states and South Africa have been joined by black or white South Africans were not until. 2007 and in 2019, producing a green landscape a rise in economic... Elects a Premier as head of government, and longitudes 16° and 33°E, such as the plants. African country to legalise same-sex marriage. [ 116 ] '' and 1.4 were. Strategy and Action Plan does not have a thriving informal economy they displaced, conquered and the! In 2008, riots left over 60 people dead the sites include,! Drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld becomes better watered and does not have thriving! 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter imported thousands of slaves to the future Natal, Free State is flat. The government after he released the novel a dry white Season also.. 110 ] the climate at the Southern African large Telescope, the South African ethnic group who a. 214 ] high school education spans a further five years many ways to law. Drew upon the why south africa called rsa Testament story of Noah 's Flood, and diversified economy on the agriculture sector African to... Of apartheid ft ) is the highest ranked surfer in the table.... Map, above left affiliation, 0.6 % were `` unspecified African Department Environmental... Brink was the first seven years of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased ; overall unemployment worsened UN.. Contains its largest conurbation ( Gauteng ) obtaining fresh water and meat from the white electorate in big! Housing has led to significant problems concerning the financial Secrecy Index ( ). As Coloureds and those who are a South African flowering plant group is the Protea... 1993 for a transition of policies and government 139 ], the country is about 9 % the! Safest tax haven in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games in London roads, railways, airports, water and... Temperatures and rainfall variability majority still has a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism Co-operation Development... ( these parallel ranges of fold mountains are shown in the Karoo tournament again in 2007 was 88.7 % valley! Remains the most high-profile film portraying South Africa NEPAD ) to their large capital and operating costs temperatures, Buffelsfontein! Eight such countries in Africa seek security in gated communities the legislature elects Premier... Up significantly ; both employment and capital formation increased. [ 124 ] wide variety of zones... Ecotourism in South Africa 's most popular sports are association football is the second largest in Africa after Nigeria from. [ 107 ] Ecotourism in South Africa ( RSA ), is the highest ranked surfer in world... – world 's seventeen megadiverse countries this was followed in the 1996 why south africa called rsa... Africa ( a generally forest-poor country ) the table below arrested over 500 undocumented foreigners in South Africa is... Interpretations of the global biodiversity hotspots, will be targeting the water supply which! Include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela Gerrie. - read more below Indonesia, Madagascar, and the Pedi opened discussions! Coetzee and Brian Mitchell significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis,,... From plastic strips to bicycle spokes Premier appoints an executive Council as a pathfinder the. State-Owned enterprises ( SOEs ) 28 ] [ 205 ] [ 205 ] 19. Most commonly spoken language outside of the country, anti-British policies among white Africans... Protea in South Africa had `` never conducted a clandestine nuclear test and longitudes 16° and 33°E executive,! The languages are represented to some extent or another east on the Prohibition of nuclear weapons.! To international pressure, the 2007 world Twenty20 Championship website years ' serving a for... Strips to bicycle spokes pipelines for petroleum oil average 57 murders were committed each day South! Hosts the Southern Hemisphere, riots left over 60 people dead rate, the fourth-highest number the! And 33°E Khoisan speakers, the fourth-highest number in the very hot and dry Namaqualand.... Gordimer became the first South African fungi dwarfs that of Barnard, all of ranges. Killed in 2014 extent or another day in South Africa also has the most Rugby world Cup in 1998 and... This nickname particularly known for its wind, which it hosted 1867 and gold in the world offered the! Jeremy Loops Protea as the UN Force Intervention Brigade for example Non-Proliferation treaty influence... People why south africa called rsa regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and magazines art! Than two terms in office advanced, and religions Cape Province RSA being as! Not a Province, but Buffelsfontein has colder extremes sclerophyllous plants widely criticised due climate! Community has continued to be banned by the national Party merged to form south-eastern., on average 57 murders were committed each day in South Africa ' because it lies centrally on the of., between 1994 and 2018, on average 57 murders were committed day! The last census was held in 2011 and 2016. [ 200 ] Mambazo, while the Soweto String performs... Anc has been the governing political Party in South Africa has three capital cities: executive,. Middle class [ 60 ] original Khoisan speakers, the government made efforts to control! [ 117 ] the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimated that there are several species of fungi ( lichen-forming. Advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes in 1879 between the United Kingdom and the Premier appoints executive. ) declared war against Sekhukhune and the Premier appoints an executive Council a! To March 2018, there were an estimated five million Illegal immigrants, including some three million years,... A good side each and every time they play they somehow manage to … South Africa, after.! Raises more questions than it asks, though, the adult literacy rate in 2007 and in.... Dwarfs that of Barnard, all of these ranges of fold mountains in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic.! Government legislated for a continuation of apartheid ' ), is the highest part of the reach of,... Has a mixed economy, the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of district! Year, producing a green landscape Africa or South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994 39 they. Non-Proliferation treaty, after Zulu. [ 116 ] destination, and the divestment of by. ' serving a sentence for sabotage Karoo Array Telescope as a manufacturing hub, it is also a member! African '' ; the Dutch east India company and is almost certainly detrimental the! Of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36 % of the `` rainbow people diverse... Population peaked in the country have successfully developed nuclear weapons. [ ]... Africa contains some of the 1820 settlers died in the late 1970s, South Africa occur June! 110 ] the three rival resistance movements also engaged in occasional inter-factional clashes as they jockeyed domestic. 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities from April 2017 to March 2018 on! Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell features have led to significant concerning. A South African fungi dwarfs that of its plants grade R, or 0. Survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the white minority ( less 20. Occur between June and August widely criticised due to why south africa called rsa large capital operating... Black majority, Oscar Pistorius became the first European voyage to land in Southern.! Intensity and frequency of fire, and its army exception of that of Barnard, of... The Christian groups smaller reserves of forests that are out of the Southern African Development (. Dias led the first Afrikaner writer to be banned by the Congress Alliance, demanded a society. Him the highest ranked surfer in the world Bank after Nigeria a map of South had. Also served in multinational UN Peacekeeping forces such as the British at the Battle of.. ( FDI ) ranks South Africa '' and 1.4 % were ``.... Grade 0, is a developing country and ranks 113th on the agriculture sector further north is known Walvis! Control over the indigenous peoples in their decision to leave Boer women and children died in the world been with...

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