This step is strongly endothermic because it forms a nonaromatic carbocation. The reaction between benzene and bromine in the presence of either aluminium bromide or iron gives bromobenzene. Many functional groups can be added to aromatic compounds via electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. PhBr+Mg=PhMgBr PhMgBr+H2O=PhH+Mg(OH)Br (or some other Magnesium species, doesn't really matter. Step 3 Loss of a proton from the carbocation to give a new aromatic compound. The reaction between benzene and chlorine in the presence of either aluminium chloride or iron gives chlorobenzene. Bromination of nitrobenzene requires strong heating and produces the meta-bromo isomer as the chief product. This is a further proof of the correctness of the hypothesis underlying our theory, i.e. a) Nitration of bromobenzene. Bromination of Benzene Bromination follows the general mechanism for electrophilic aromatic substitution. 16.4 ELECTROPHILIC AROMATIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS OF BENZENE 755 Step 2 Reaction of the benzene p electrons with the electrophile to form a carbocation inter- mediate. Formation of bromobenzene For detail discussions on nitration, sulfonation, and halogenation of benzene, please visit BYJU’S. Step 2: The bromine ion acts as an electrophile in the process which further reacts with benzene to form arenium ion which finally converts to bromobenzene. 6 -93 0.. 87 Slightly in H 2 Bromobenzene 155-156 -30. Explanation Benzene reacts with halogens (salt former) like chlorine and bromine and these reactions are called electrophilic substitution reaction in the presence of catalyst of Lewis acid like aluminum chloride, sulfur dichloride, ferric chloride or iron [1].

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Interpretation: The major product produced during nitration of bromobenzene is to be predicted. or, written more compactly: The reaction with bromine. The bromination of bromobenzene vapour under the influence of light was studied; illumination results in a lowering of the temperature range in which the substitution type changes. Iodination of Benzene The iodination procedure … If you are trying to convert bromobenzene to benzene, the following reaction sequence should suffice. Concept introduction: When a monosubstituted benzene undergoes electrophilic substitution reaction, the second electrophile can enter into either ortho or … The bromination of benzene. 88 Slightly in H 2 Toluene 110.

Nitration is the usual way that nitro groups are introduced into aromatic rings. Ch17 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds (landscape).docx Page6 Chlorination of Benzene The chlorination proceeds analogously to the bromination except this time the Lewis acid catalyst used is AlCl 3. Bromination of methoxybenzene (anisole) is very fast and gives mainly the para-bromo isomer, accompanied by 10% of the ortho-isomer and only a trace of the meta-isomer. Aluminum bromide is used when benzene reacting bromide.

50 InsolubleDibromobenzene 220. Bromobenzene H Br2 Br FeBr3 HBr Bromination This is the general method for Substitution of halogen onto a benzene ring (CANNOT be halogenated by Free Radical Mechanism) ... Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid + SO SO3 3 H H 2 SO4 (SO3 in H2SO4 is sometimes called “fuming” sulfuric acid.)

40 87. Organic Chemistry I LAB EXAM: FINALBROMINATION OF BENZENE SYNTHESIS AND PURIFICATION OF BROMOBENZENE: PROCEDURE DATA TABLE Chemical boiling point C Melting Point C Density g / m L Solubility Benzene 80. All electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions share a common mechanism. 5 0. Class 12/II PUC Chemistry Convertion-09 benzene to Bromonitrobenzene (Haloalkanes and Haloarenes) - Duration: 4:53.

(Notice that either of the oxygens can accept the electron pair.) Organic Lecture Series 16 8 1. 1 5. A functional group is a substituent that brings with it certain chemical reactions that the aromatic compound itself doesn't display.. the development of a radical type of reaction at high temperatures. (…) Formation of the sigma complex is rate-limiting, and the transition state leading to it occupies the highest-energy point on the energy diagram (Figure 17-1).